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赏鉴:铜坐龙

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铜坐龙是金代早中期皇室的御用器物。龙取坐姿,左前肢高举,与左后肢间有腾云相连。右前肢着地,与右后肢相接。尾部翘起外卷,前肢长鬣突出于肩部之上,与头上卷鬣及后扬的长鬣相映。

Copper sitting dragon is the imperial utensils of the royal family in the early and middle Jin Dynasty. The dragon takes the sitting posture, the left forelimb holds high, and the left hindlimb has the ascendant cloud connection. The right forelimb lands on the ground and connects with the right hindlimb. The tail is curled and the forelimb is long and protruding above the shoulder, reflecting the long iguana on the head and the back of the iguana.

    龙首微扬,张口吟啸,亦动亦静,威武雄姿,浩气凛然.据《金史·舆服志》载,金世宗完颜雍在大定六年(1166年)重新审定皇帝所乘坐的车,规定将本朝以前所用之金辂(皇帝乘坐的大型豪华车辆)轼上坐龙改为凤,表明铜坐龙实物曾用于皇室御用专车座前扶手的横木上。又据记载,大辇顶轮上有银莲花、坐龙。可见,此类铜坐龙还曾被用在马车的顶轮上。可以认定,铜坐龙应该为金代皇室御用马车上的装饰物。它集龙、麒麟、狮、犬形象和特点于一身,设计构想及雕塑水平高超。

The dragonundefineds head is very slight, and the mouth of Zhangundefineds mouth is singing, and it is also quiet, and it is very powerful and powerful. According to the chronicle of Jin Shi, Jin Shizong, after six years (1166 years), reconfirmed the emperorundefineds car, and stipulated that the emperor used to be used before the emperor (the large-scale luxury vehicle to be used by the emperor) was changed to Feng. It is shown that the in-kind of the copper-sitting dragon is used on the cross-wood of the front armrest of the royal-used special-purpose car seat. It is also stated that there is a silver lotus and a sitting dragon on the big top wheel. It can be seen that such a copper seat is also used on the top wheel of the carriage. It can be found that the copper-sitting dragon should be the ornament of the royal family of the Jin Dynasty. It combines the image and characteristics of the dragon, the unicorn, the lion, the dog, the design conception and the sculpture level.

    铜坐龙造型为踞坐式,以青铜材料铸造。其造型以三角形的构图弓身踞坐,尾部上翘,与云纹卷成旋状。右爪着地,左爪抬起放在一块祥云上边,并与后爪相连。龙身整体造型流畅,做工精美考究。这种坐龙区别于传统的四大龙型。它不仅出现在金代,而且在女真人后裔满族人创建的清代宫廷建筑的屋檐上以及华表上的龙型神兽,均为坐龙形态。可见金代工匠创造的坐龙这种龙型对于后代有很大的影响。

Copper sitting dragon shape for sitting type, cast with bronze materials. Its shape is triangular composition bow body sitting, tail warped, and moire curl into a rotating shape. The right claw landed on the ground, and the left claw was lifted on top of an auspicious cloud and connected to the rear claw. The overall shape of the dragon body is smooth, the workmanship is exquisite and elegant. This kind of sitting dragon is different from the traditional four dragon types. It not only appeared in the Jin Dynasty, but also appeared in the eaves of the Qing Dynasty court buildings and the dragon fairy beasts on the Chinese watch, all of which were in the form of sitting dragons. It can be seen that the dragon type created by craftsmen on behalf of Jin Dynasty has a great influence on future generations.

铜坐龙/高:18.6cm,重:约1392g,底:9.4cm

Copper saurus/ height: 18.6 cm, weight: about 1392 g, bottom: 9.4cm

    铜坐龙头部微向上抬,其头部兽面、鹰嘴,嘴呈半张状。鹰嘴应该为弯钩状,但金人也许觉得勾状嘴从视觉上看用在龙身上不合适,鹰的特征过于明显,与龙身其它各部不谐调,便大胆将鹰嘴拉直,使龙嘴成为一个三角形。观者俯视这尊铜坐龙时鹰嘴的特征更为明显。女真人用鹰嘴变形作为铜坐龙的嘴,这与前面谈到的他们对海东青的崇拜有必然联系。海东青是女真人英勇顽强与智慧的象征,是他们民族精神的体现。所以在龙首龙嘴这个显要位置运用此造型。在各种龙的造型中,一般都是龙目圆睁,表现威严,而铜坐龙的眼睛则为凤眼,这是受唐代龙型的影响,铜坐尤以凤眼体现仁慈华贵并以凤眼微笑的感觉来祝愿金朝国运的兴盛。坐龙在口中有上下两对如同猛虎一样的牙齿,这是以此表现龙的威猛凶悍。根据专家考证,坐龙最初完整时口内还应该叼有一个铜珠子,也许在发掘时遗失了。铜坐龙头部中的龙鼻子造型很特殊,是人的鼻子,鼻孔朝上,显得霸气十足。

The copper sits on the dragon head slightly upward, its head animal surface, eagle mouth, mouth is half open. The eagleundefineds mouth should be curved hook, but the golden man may feel that the hook mouth is not suitable for the dragon visually. The eagleundefineds characteristics are too obvious and out of tune with other parts of the dragonundefineds body, so he boldly straightens the eagleundefineds mouth and makes it a triangle. The characteristics of the eagleundefineds mouth are more obvious when the viewer looks down on the bronze. The real woman uses the eagle mouth to deform as the copper sitting dragonundefineds mouth, which has the inevitable connection with their worship of Hai Dongqing. HaiDongqing is the symbol of heroism, tenacity and wisdom of real women, and the embodiment of their national spirit. So in the dragon head dragon mouth this prominent position to use this shape. In the shape of all kinds of dragons, it is generally the dragon with wide eyes and majesty, while the eyes of the bronze dragon are Phoenix eyes, which is influenced by the dragon type of Tang Dynasty. The bronze sitting, especially the Phoenix eye, embodies the kindness and splendor and wishes the prosperity of the national movement of the Jin Dynasty with the feeling of the Phoenix eye smile. Sitting a dragon has two pairs of teeth like a tiger in its mouth, which shows the strength and ferocious of the dragon. According to expert research, when the dragon was first complete, there should also be a copper bead in its mouth, which may have been lost at the time of the excavation. Copper sitting dragon head in the dragon nose shape is very special, is the human nose, nostrils up, appear domineering.

铜坐龙/高:18.6cm,重:约1392g,底:9.4cm

Copper saurus/ height: 18.6 cm, weight: about 1392 g, bottom: 9.4cm

坐龙身体的躯干部分是无鳞片蛇身的造型。“S”形的身体更似狗的坐姿,既利于流线形体的稳定,也十分美观。狗在女真人的生活中也是必不可少的动物,它即是狩猎中的帮手,也是看家护院的忠仆。女真人将狗的形象运用于象征皇权的龙型之中,可见狗在他们心中的地位。龙身上没有鳞片却有云纹做装饰,这些云纹运用在龙身上,形象地表现了腾云驾雾的效果。坐龙的左前爪自然地放在一块祥云上面。祥云雕刻得生动考究,使我觉得它与汉代铜器“马踏飞燕”有异曲同工之妙,二者在雕塑造型上都起到稳定结构、动静结合的作用。祥云斜落在地面上,而不是垂直在地面上。工匠这样设计自然地使龙的左前爪与后腿巧妙地连接在一起,使坐龙整个造型更加稳定。试想龙的左前爪如果没有踏放在一块祥云上面,而是腾空而起,那就会让观者觉得铜坐龙似狗的特点太明显,同时单独抬起的前爪也较易损坏。所以,坐龙前爪踏云纹这一造型使得龙身通身趋于一体。

The torso part of the sitting dragon body is the shape of the scaleless snake body. The "S" shape is more like the sitting posture of the dog, which is not only conducive to the stability of the streamline body, but also very beautiful. Dog is also an indispensable animal in the life of a real woman. It is not only a helper in hunting, but also a loyal servant in the nursing home. Real women use the image of the dog in the dragon, which symbolizes imperial power, and can see the status of the dog in their hearts. There are no scales but moire decoration on the dragon, these moire is used in the dragon, vividly showing the effect of cloud driving fog. The left front claw of the dragon is naturally placed on top of an auspicious cloud. Xiangyun carved vividly and meticulously, so that I think it is similar to the Han Dynasty bronze "Ma Tao Fei Yan". Both of them play the role of stabilizing the structure and combining the movement and stillness in the sculpture modeling. Auspicious clouds fall on the ground, not perpendicular to the ground. In this way, the craftsman naturally connects the left front claw and the rear leg of the dragon, making the whole shape of the dragon more stable. Imagine that if the left front claw of the dragon does not step on an auspicious cloud, but rises in the air, it will make the viewer think that the characteristics of the copper sitting dragon like a dog are too obvious, and the front claw raised alone is also more likely to be damaged. Therefore, sitting in front of the dragon claw treadmill moire this shape makes the dragon body tends to be one.

 

此藏品放于泉州闽古通今,可议价交易,本公司承诺购买此藏品版别珍贵且稀有,流通量极少,有收藏投资价值、市场价值、文化价值,升值空间较大。

This collection is placed in Quanzhou Mingutongjin today and can be bargainable. The company promises to purchase this collection edition which is rare and precious. It has very little circulation, and has great collection investment value, market value and cultural value. It has a large appreciation space.

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